Despite marches held in Algiers and strikes in oil cities throughoutthe government has not been endangered or pressured enough to undertake important reforms. The complex political configuration of the regime and the scars of civil war have convinced the society that revolution is impractical. A review of the historical, institutional and social characteristics of Algeria helps us understand why Algerians have not embraced revolution, unlike their neighbors. Surrounded by the Arab Spring, Algeria is celebrating both the fiftieth anniversary of its independence and the twentieth anniversary of the abrogation of its democratic process.
Introduction One year has remained to the forthcoming presidential elections in Algeria, and the Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika is still the candidate of the "majority of political elites" in the country, as his supporters claim, those who are still nominate the same man for taking the fifth consecutive presidential mandate in spite of his severe illness which threw him on his wheelchair since five years ago.
In contrast, the current Algerian political arena is unable to find an alternative consensus candidate, the case that raises many questions about the democratic future of a country with the characteristics of an entire continent.
This article discusses the underlying causes behind the democratic deficit in Algeria, which political regime remains firmly in place despite all the waves of "democratic chaos" sweeping its regional sphere since or the so-called "Arab spring revolutions".
So, we would like to ask the following questions: What prevents the political change in Algeria towards democracy? How did the political regime in Algeria prevent the arrival of democratic waves of change to the borders of Algeria?
This article is divided into two parts, the first part provides a brief story of the historical path that democracy has taken in Algeria since independence, explaining the effective actors in the Algerian political regime, while the second part is trying to identify the most important factors that cause the continuation of the democratic deficit in Algeria until now, wondering about the future of democracy in this country rich in natural wealth, people capacities and great history.
A Brief Story of Democracy in Algeria Before we identify the causes of the democratic deficit in Algeria in general and the factors that caused the failure of the "Arab Spring" in the country in The history of the algerian arab spring, it is better to give the reader a brief history of the democratic experiment in Algeria.
Algeria was governed by Boumediene until his death in Decemberduring his period, the country had a very good reputation on the international level, Algeria was a leading voice of the national liberation movements and an influential leader in the non-aligned movement in the Third World, and its diplomacy was characterized by unprecedented activity with its repeated successes in the mediation process among disputed parties.
At the domestic level, Boumediene devoted national reforms of a socialist nature, such as the nationalization of fuel, the agricultural revolution that succeeded to some extent in pushing this young country economy forward, but its policies failed miserably to construct a state with strong institutions which its continuity not dependent on the presence and continuity of any leader in ruling as he used to say.
Boumediene is also blamed on integrating some Algerian officers in the national military who had fought against the Algerian liberation revolution alongside with France and joined the revolution later which so-called "Lacoste promotion".
He did not know in that time that this military group would shape the future of Algeria after him later. After the death of President Boumediene inpolitical influence of the military establishment was grew, this establishment brought the late Shadli Ben Jadid as a new president of Algeria, with marginalizing other political figures were more experience and famous than Ben Jadid like Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who was the Algerian foreign minister during the days of Boumediene and was close to him or Mr.
Mohamed Saleh Yahiaoui, which was a very revolutionary charismatic personality. The days of Shadli Ben Jedid were characterized by numerous political and social disturbances, the most important were the events of "the Amazigh Spring" inwhich the Amazigh demanded during it some political and social rights which were denied them during Boumedian days.
The country also witnessed a growing wave of Islamic trends and movements, which influenced by The Muslim Brotherhood ideas in Egypt, the Islamic revolution ideas in Iran, the Wahhabi trend of Saudi Arabia, the jihadist ideas of Afghanistan and others.
With the fall of the Soviet Union and the triumph of Western liberalism, there was no longer any justification for the ruling elite in Algeria to continue adopting the socialist system in economy and governance.
The new international circumstances have led Algeria toward liberalism and democratic openness. Despite all the political and social problems that the country was experiencing at that time, but it did not shake the confidence of the Algerian ruling party FLN in itself, nor the confidence of ruling Generals from behind the curtain in opening the country over the political pluralism and allowing other new formed parties to compete for power.
Inan Islamist-oriented political front called "The Islamic Salvation Front" FIS was able to defeat the ruling party in a legislative election that everyone saw as fair.
At that time, President Shadli announced his acceptance with respect for the results of the fund. They pushed Shadli to resign and the tank came to the street to restore the situation to what it was before, that caused the failure of the first democratic experience in Algeria and plunging the country into a period of terrible violence and terrorism.
The Algerian Generals sought refuge in the revolutionary leader Mohamed Boudiaf, who has enjoyed of revolutionary legitimacy and was well accepted by the Algerian political community. He was pushed to power, but Boudiaf did not rule for more than five months January-June to be assassinated while addressing the Algerian people in a live broadcast, and until now the circumstances of his assassination remain ambiguous.Algeria at the vanguard in the s, a nation that inspired the entire world with its heroic revolutionary war against the French colonialists, paradoxically seemed preserved from these aspirations.
The western media portrayed Algeria as being at the margin of the Arab spring, of being the exception.
Of course this is an optical illusion. In Algeria, a chill in the Arab spring. In the face of gilded promises, the Algerian public, weary after a long history of violence, seems to be . Five years after the Arab Spring, Algeria, Africa’s biggest country, has maintained some semblance of stability.
But with oil prices falling and Bouteflika in poor health, that may be about to change.
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|Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. By Rabah Ghezali Algeria embraced the popular overthrow of Benali and Mubarak with happiness and pride.|
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In other words, Algeria could soon be facing an Arab Spring of its own. Algerian foreign policy has faced formidable challenges since the outbreak of the Arab Spring.
Its uncompromising position against outside interference even in cases of humanitarian emergencies put the country out of step with Arab public opinion.
– Algerian protests; Part of the Arab Spring: Demonstration organised by RCD in Algiers. Date: 28 December () – 10 January (1 year, 1 week and 6 days) Location: The –12 Algerian protests was a series of protests taking place throughout Algeria.
Arab Spring; Related topics.
Outline of Algeria; Military history of Algeria (List of wars involving Algeria) The last significant events in the country's recent history have been the Algerian War and Algerian Civil War.
Prehistory. Evidence of .