Features[ edit ] Object-oriented programming uses objects, but not all of the associated techniques and structures are supported directly in languages that claim to support OOP. The features listed below are, however, common among languages considered strongly class- and object-oriented or multi-paradigm with OOP supportwith notable exceptions mentioned.
Classes are a description model of real objects and events referred to as entities. An example would be a class called "Student". Classes possess characteristics — in programming they are referred to as properties. An example would be a set of grades.
Classes also expose behavior known in programming as methods. An example would be sitting an exam. Objects are instances of classes. For example, John is a Student and Peter is also a Student. Procedural programming describes programs as groups of reusable code units procedures which define input and output parameters.
Procedural programs consist of procedures, which invoke each other.
The problem with procedural programming is that code reusability is Oop language and limited — only procedures can be reused and it is hard to make them generic and flexible.
There is Oop language easy way to work with abstract data structures with different implementations. The object-oriented approach relies on the paradigm that each and every program works with data that describes entities objects or events from real life.
This is how objects came to be.
They describe characteristics properties and behavior methods of such real life entities. The main advantages and goals of OOP are to make complex software faster to develop and easier to maintain.
OOP enables the easy reuse of code by applying simple and widely accepted rules principles. Fundamental Principles of OOP In order for a programming language to be object-oriented, it has to enable working with classes and objects as well as the implementation and use of the fundamental object-oriented principles and concepts: We shall not get into a detailed dispute about whether or not exceptions are part of OOP and rather will note that exceptions are supported in all modern object-oriented languages and are the primary mechanism of handling errors and unusual situations in object-oriented programming.
Exceptions always come together with OOP and their importance is explained in details in the chapter " Exception Handling ". Inheritance Inheritance is a fundamental principle of object-oriented programming.
It allows a class to "inherit" behavior or characteristics of another, more general class. For example, a lion belongs to the biological family of cats Felidae. All cats that have four paws, are predators and hunt their prey. This functionality can be coded once in the Felidae class and all its predators can reuse it — Tiger, Puma, Bobcat, etc.
Inheritance is described as is-kind-of relationship, e. Tiger is kind of Animal. How Does Inheritance Work in. NET is defined with a special construct in the class declaration.
NET, classes can inherit multiple interfaces, which we will discuss later. This is how a base class looks like:This is a list of notable programming languages with object-oriented programming (OOP) features, which are also listed in Category:Object-oriented programming benjaminpohle.com that, in some contexts, the definition of an "object-oriented programming language" is not exactly the same as that of a "programming language with object-oriented features".
For example, C++ is a multi-paradigm language. Object-oriented programming language (OOPL) is a high-level programming language based on the object-oriented programming (OOP) model.
OOPL incorporates logical classes, objects, methods, relationships and other processes with the design of software and applications.
|PHP: The Basics - Manual||Read on for a primer on OOP concepts in Java.|
|The Basics||I do, but I get a lot of email.|
|Classes (I) - C++ Tutorials||Introduction Quite often I see a question in a newsgroup or forum along the lines of: What is this thing called 'OOP'?|
|Update: R2014a||In this way, the data structure becomes an object that includes both data and functions. In addition, programmers can create relationships between one object and another.|
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods.
In This Chapter. In this chapter we will familiarize ourselves with the principles of object-oriented programming: class inheritance, interface implementation, abstraction of data and behavior, encapsulation of data and class implementation, polymorphism and virtual benjaminpohle.com will explain in details the principles of cohesion and benjaminpohle.com will briefly outline object-oriented modeling and.
For a Few Stories More [Joe R. Lansdale] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Call them steps on the way to greatness. Early stories and experiments, some published, none of them collected previously.