Mathematician Manfred Kochen and political scientist Ithiel de Sola Pool wrote a mathematical manuscript, "Contacts and Influences", while working at the University of Paris in the early s, during a time when Milgram visited and collaborated in their research. Their unpublished manuscript circulated among academics for over 20 years before publication in It formally articulated the mechanics of social networksand explored the mathematical consequences of these including the degree of connectedness. The manuscript left many significant questions about networks unresolved, and one of these was the number of degrees of separation in actual social networks.
Of the five operators, only two had knowledge of filtering systems. One of them indicated that they had a technical team Cyworld case study charge of their network and so there was a filtering system Cyworld case study place that blocked inappropriate content such as pornography from their networks.
One of the operators emphasized that as a rule their role is to provide the service and not to meddle in the private affairs of their patrons, including what they do on the Internet. They worked as traders, farmers, and commercial drivers, vocations implying that the respondents come from poor backgrounds.
This is not surprising, since most of the residents in the study location are low-skilled migrants. This is confirmed by the Accra Metropolitan Assembly AMAwhich has categorized the area as low income and non-indigenous.
Social media is now a common media platform for youth around the world, including participants of this study.
This popularity can be ascribed to the many benefits, or uses and gratifications, that youth derive from it, such as building friendships and communicating with friends both offline and online, entertaining themselves, building their own content, and exploring their self-identities.
For these young people from poor backgrounds with limited opportunities at home, social media offers an opportunity for personal and educational advancement, and many try to take the best possible advantage of it. The popularity of social media use among the youth of the current study is consistent with the results of other studies.
This finding stands in contrast with those of a recent Pew Research Center analysis of 27 nationwide surveys on use of technology by the U. In the past decade, those living in affluent or high-income households and those with a college education were consistently more likely to use social media than those with only a high school education or lower.
The preferred social media of the study participants were Facebook and WhatsApp. It is probable that participants are using these two media to stay connected with friends, since some study reports reveal that Facebook and WhatsApp are generally popular among young people.
For example, Madden et al. This may be ascribed to the fact that WhatsApp is readily accessible from mobile phones without any log-in information. It also has call and messaging features, which are useful in communicating with friends and family members.
In Ghana, using these features on WhatsApp is much cheaper than buying phone units to make calls or send text messages. This is done to notify a contact to call back.
The participants in the study may be using WhatsApp more frequently than other SNS to take advantage of its free chat and call features. The findings also reveal that 1. Students spending this much time on SNS will have less available time for schoolwork, which can affect their academic performance.
A Ghanaian study of the effects of social media use on school performance reveals that prolonged use leads to reduced time spent on schoolwork and procrastination in completing assignments. As the young people were from poor backgrounds, they may not have had access to computers at home.
Also, statistics from the last Ghana population census in revealed that only 7. It is not surprising that Census data on mobile phone ownership indicates that about Many users maintain multiple subscriptions as a means of controlling costs and also to have a fallback when one of the service providers goes off air temporarily, which is a common occurrence.
It is also cheaper to speak to a contact on the same network. Sey is of the opinion that the mobile phone is no longer a preserve of the rich, because there are affordable ones on the market, so both the rich and poor can afford to own a mobile phone.
Respondents reported unreliable power supply and lack of Internet access as problems encountered in using social media.
Ghana was experiencing a protracted power-supply crisis at the time of the study. It led to the introduction of scheduled load shedding by the power utility to regulate supply.
Many could not afford Internet access in their homes. The findings also show that youth in the study had encountered some cyberbullying in their use of social media, including mean, offensive, or hurtful messages, name-calling in a chat room, fake profiles, and spreading of rumors on SNS.
This finding is similar to those of other studies. For example, a Pew Internet Project report stated that one in every three online teens have experienced online harassment.
Drussel warns that cyberbullying must be taken seriously since it can be detrimental to its victims and may lead to feelings of depression, guilt, and shame, as well as self-harm and withdrawal from family and friends.
One of the assumptions of the theory is that people are able to verbalize their motivations for their choice of media, that is, their reasons for using the media. The youth in this study were able to identify their uses and gratifications for social media use when asked to indicate the purposes for which they used social media.The Presence of Hyperlinks on Social Network Sites: A Case Study of Cyworld in Korea S.
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