Anarchism as a political philosophy advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies    although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non- hierarchical free associations.
Tweet For the second time in a generation, the United States faces the prospect of defeat at the hands of an insurgency. In Aprilthe U. These debacles are not attributable to individual failures, but rather to a crisis in an entire institution: The argument that follows consists Congress failure to exercise oversight of three elements.
First, generals have a responsibility to society to provide policymakers with a correct estimate of strategic probabilities.
Third, remedying the crisis in American generalship requires the intervention of Congress. The Responsibilities of Generalship Armies do not fight wars; nations fight wars. War is not a military activity conducted by soldiers, but rather a social activity that involves entire nations.
Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz noted that passion, probability and policy each play their role in war. Any understanding of war that ignores one of these elements is fundamentally flawed.
The passion of the people is necessary to endure the sacrifices inherent in war. Regardless of the system of government, the people supply the blood and treasure required to prosecute war. The statesman must stir these passions to a level commensurate with the popular sacrifices required. When the ends of policy are small, the statesman can prosecute a conflict without asking the public for great sacrifice.
Global conflicts such as World War II require the full mobilization of entire societies to provide the men and materiel necessary for the successful prosecution of war.
The greatest error the statesman can make is to commit his nation to a great conflict without mobilizing popular passions to a level commensurate with the stakes of the conflict. Popular passions are necessary for the successful prosecution of war, but cannot be sufficient.
To prevail, generals must provide policymakers and the public with a correct estimation of strategic probabilities.
The general is responsible for estimating the likelihood of success in applying force to achieve the aims of policy. The general describes both the means necessary for the successful prosecution of war and the ways in which the nation will employ those means. If the policymaker desires ends for which the means he provides are insufficient, the general is responsible for advising the statesman of this incongruence.
The statesman must then scale back the ends of policy or mobilize popular passions to provide greater means.
If the general remains silent while the statesman commits a nation to war with insufficient means, he shares culpability for the results. However much it is influenced by passion and probability, war is ultimately an instrument of policy and its conduct is the responsibility of policymakers.
War is a social activity undertaken on behalf of the nation; Augustine counsels us that the only purpose of war is to achieve a better peace. The choice of making war to achieve a better peace is inherently a value judgment in which the statesman must decide those interests and beliefs worth killing and dying for.
The military man is no better qualified than the common citizen to make such judgments. He must therefore confine his input to his area of expertise — the estimation of strategic probabilities. The correct estimation of strategic possibilities can be further subdivided into the preparation for war and the conduct of war.
Preparation for war consists in the raising, arming, equipping and training of forces. The conduct of war consists of both planning for the use of those forces and directing those forces in operations. To prepare forces for war, the general must visualize the conditions of future combat.
|Select a Section||There was little discussion of the power to oversee, review, or investigate executive activity at the Constitutional Convention of or later in The Federalist Paperswhich argued in favor of ratification of the Constitution. The lack of debate was because oversight and its attendant authority were seen as an inherent power of representative assemblies which enacted public law.|
To raise military forces properly, the general must visualize the quality and quantity of forces needed in the next war. To arm and equip military forces properly, the general must visualize the materiel requirements of future engagements. To train military forces properly, the general must visualize the human demands on future battlefields, and replicate those conditions in peacetime exercises.
Of course, not even the most skilled general can visualize precisely how future wars will be fought. Following World War I, French generals committed this error, assuming that the next war would involve static battles dominated by firepower and fixed fortifications.
Throughout the interwar years, French generals raised, equipped, armed and trained the French military to fight the last war.
In stark contrast, German generals spent the interwar years attempting to break the stalemate created by firepower and fortifications. They developed a new form of war — the blitzkrieg — that integrated mobility, firepower and decentralized tactics. The German Army did not get this new form of warfare precisely right.
After the conquest of Poland, the German Army undertook a critical self-examination of its operations. However, German generals did not get it too far wrong either, and in less than a year had adapted their tactics for the invasion of France.
After visualizing the conditions of future combat, the general is responsible for explaining to civilian policymakers the demands of future combat and the risks entailed in failing to meet those demands. Civilian policymakers have neither the expertise nor the inclination to think deeply about strategic probabilities in the distant future.For the second time in a generation, the United States faces the prospect of defeat at the hands of an insurgency.
In April , the U.S.
fled the Republic of Vietnam, abandoning our allies to their fate at the hands of North Vietnamese communists. Introduction. The Federal Employees Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules Act of , codified at 5 U.S.C. § et seq. (the F&CWS law), authorizes a versatile and innovative work scheduling program for use in the Federal Government.
In recent years, the importance of flexible and compressed work schedules has been enhanced by the emergence of work and family issues. Reuters found multiple examples of pay mistakes affecting active-duty personnel and discharged soldiers.
Some are erroneously shortchanged on pay. Give one specific explanation for the failure of Congress to exercise effective oversight of the federal bureaucracy. · No electoral payoff / Political ramifications · Oversight is labor intensive/ hard work. COSATU Secretariat Report to the Ninth National Congress to be held on 18 to 21 September , Gallagher Estate, Midrand.
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