The Tragedy of the Commons Science 13, December At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.
The author is professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara.
This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York 1 concluded that: It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution.
A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day though not in earlier times technical solutions are always welcome.
Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences.
They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, "It is our considered professional judgment. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called "no technical solution problems," and, more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these.
It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, "How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe?
Put another way, there is no "technical solution" to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word "win. Every way in which I "win" involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it.
I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to play it.
This is what most adults do. The class of "No technical solution problems" has members. My thesis is that the "population problem," as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
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Berle Jr., New York Times Book Review This incisive interpretation of American foreign policy ranks as a classic in American thought. The Tragedy Of Oedipus The King - You know and you won’t tell. You’re bent on betraying us, destroying Thebes.
(Sophocles ) In hopes of having the prophecy changed, Oedipus argued to Tiresias that what he was being told was a lie.
The Greek Tragedy of Oedipus the King - A Greek tragedy is one with a tragic outcome that is an inevitable result of the key character's personal flaws. On 14 June , a fire broke out in the storey Grenfell Tower block of flats in North Kensington, West London just before am BST; it caused 72 deaths, including those of two victims who later died in hospital.
More than 70 others were injured and people escaped. It was the deadliest structural fire in the United Kingdom since the Piper Alpha disaster and the worst UK. The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
(Note that the Soviet Red Army military advisers sent to China were mostly German Jews, and the Comintern agents sent to China were mostly American.
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.