An analysis of the groups of people smoking in public places

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An analysis of the groups of people smoking in public places

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State Smoke-Free Laws for Worksites, Restaurants, and Bars United States, Secondhand smoke SHS exposure causes lung cancer and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in nonsmoking adults and children, resulting in an estimated 46, heart disease deaths and 3, lung cancer deaths among U.

Smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas of a venue fully protect nonsmokers from involuntary exposure to SHS indoors 1. A Healthy People objective called for enacting laws eliminating smoking in public places and worksites in all 50 states and the District of Columbia DC ; because this objective was not met byit was retained for Healthy People renumbered as TU To assess progress toward meeting this objective, CDC reviewed state laws restricting smoking in effect as of December 31, This report summarizes the changes in state smoking restrictions for private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars that occurred from December 31, to December 31, The number of states including DC with laws that prohibit smoking in indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars increased from zero in to 26 in However, regional disparities remain in policy adoption, with no southern state having adopted a smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all three venues.

The Healthy People target on this topic is achievable if current activity in smoke-free policy adoption is sustained nationally and intensified in certain regions, particularly the South. This report focuses on laws that completely prohibit smoking in private-sector worksites, restaurants, and bars.

These three venues were selected because they are a major source of SHS exposure for nonsmoking employees and the public 1. CDC considers a state smoke-free law to be comprehensive if it prohibits smoking in these three venues.

Some states have enacted laws with less stringent smoking restrictions e. The Surgeon General has concluded that the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure is to prohibit smoking in all indoor areas, and that separating smokers from nonsmokers, cleaning the air, and ventilating buildings cannot eliminate SHS exposure 1.

The STATE System contains information on state tobacco-related laws, including smoke-free policies, in effect since the fourth quarter of In addition to information on state smoking restrictions in worksites, restaurants, and bars, the STATE System contains information on state smoking restrictions in other venues, including government worksites, commercial and home-based child care centers, multiunit housing, vehicles, hospitals, prisons, and hotels and motels.

The number of states with comprehensive smoke-free laws in effect increased from zero on December 31,to 26 states on December 31, Table 1.

InDelaware became the first state to implement a comprehensive smoke-free law, followed by New York inMassachusetts inand Rhode Island and Washington in The years listed are the years in which the laws took effect; in some cases the laws were enacted in a preceding year.

Some state laws were expanded gradually or phased in; in these cases, the year provided is the year when the law first applied to all three of the settings considered in this study.

Additionally, while most of these laws were enacted through the state legislative process, Arizona, Ohio, South Dakota, and Washington enacted their laws through ballot measures. As of December 31,in addition to the 26 states with comprehensive smoke-free laws, 10 states had enacted laws that prohibit smoking in one or two, but not all three, of the venues included in this study Table 2.

Additionally, eight states had passed less restrictive laws e. Finally, seven states have no statewide smoking restrictions in place for private worksites, restaurants, or bars Table 2.

Of note, only three southern states Florida, Louisiana, and North Carolina have laws that prohibit smoking in any two of the three venues examined in this report, and no southern state has a comprehensive state smoke-free law in effect Figure.

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Michael Tynan, CDC,mtynan cdc. Smoke-free laws substantially improve indoor air quality, reduce SHS exposure and related health problems among nonsmokers, help smokers quit, change social norms regarding the acceptability of smoking, and reduce heart attack and asthma hospitalizations The findings in this analysis indicate that the United States made considerable progress during the past decade in increasing the number of states with comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars, and increasing the number of U.

As of December 31,26 states have implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws, and almost half Before Delaware passed its smoke-free law inno state had adopted a comprehensive law making private workplaces, restaurants, and bars smoke-free.

Although a Utah law prohibiting smoking in restaurants took effect insmoking was still allowed in worksites and bars in that state until Comprehensive smoke-free laws were rare even at the local level until the s.

Inthe community of San Luis Obispo, California, adopted the first law in the United States eliminating smoking in bars. During the s, smoke-free bar laws were largely limited to communities in California and Massachusetts.

The progress made during the past decade in enacting comprehensive state smoke-free laws is an extraordinary public health achievement. In the span of 10 years, smoke-free workplaces, restaurants, and bars went from being relatively rare to being the norm in half of the states and DC.

An analysis of the groups of people smoking in public places

Several factors appear to have contributed to this outcome. First, smoke-free laws increasingly were viewed as a worker protection measure that should apply to all employees, including those in restaurants and bars 1.

Second, as state and local smoke-free laws were enacted across the country, other states and communities learned from the experiences of similar jurisdictions and were able to adapt and implement such laws 1,7.A majority of Americans say smoking in public places should be illegal.

That is consistent with recent years, but a shift from before when the majority disagreed.

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more than 10 percentage points lower than what is found among older age groups. New research suggests addressing three other factors could help people improve their.

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Free team building games for conferences, warm-ups, ice-breakers and training sessions. Free online resources for work and life from Also in , a systematic review and meta-analysis found that bans on smoking in public places were Smoking in public places was banned in Poland on 15 November The former UK Secretary of State for Health John Reid claimed that restrictions upon smoking in public places may lead to more people .

Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data. The generational differences in religious affiliation among white working-class Americans are more pronounced than among the general public.

More than eight in ten white working-class seniors (age 65 and older) identify as Christian: 39% are evangelical Protestant, 22% .

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